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White water rafting is an adventure sport in which a raft is used to navigate a river or any water body. It is usually done on rapids or white water to keep up the excitement. A river goes through different gradients and flows from a higher gradient to lower gradient. When the riverís gradient becomes sharp, frothy water is formed consisting of bubbles and aerated water. This has a white appearance hence termed white water. The sport has been popular since the mid 80ís.

White water rafting is suitable for all age groups as various types of rapids are available for different tastes and experience. Almost anyone with a reasonable health can go for white water rafting. It is a good way to spend a vacation, travel abroad, be among the nature, get the sun and of course get a tan. It is considered a good way to release the stress. The expeditions range from a day to a month. White water rafting is now widely practiced through out the world.

The essential gear required for White water rafting is a raft. The inflatable boat is the most common raft used. It is made up of layers of durable rubber fabrics and independent air chambers. Various sizes are available ranging from 11 ft to 20 ft. White water kayaks are also popular. They are made of plastic or fibre glass. Safety gear, water proof bags & cases, hooks, knifes, ropes and camping equipment are essential. Almost all these are available on hire.

April to October is a good time. For thrill seekers May & June are suitable when the rapids are more turbulent. White water rafting is done throughout the world round the year.

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White water is classified into 6 categories depending on the difficulty:

ï Class I: Smooth water but fast.
ï Class II: A little bit of rough water with eddies and easy drops
ï Class III: Whitewater with rapids irregular waves, back eddies. Swimming, self rescue knowledge is must.
ï Class IV: White water with whirlpools, high irregular waves, for experienced adventurers.
ï Class V: White water with dangerous obstacles, violent rapids, boiling eddies. Scouting is essential before going on such expeditions
ï Class VI: Extremely dangerous unexplored rapids.

Due to interaction of river and riverbed various features are like strainers, eddies, waves, pillows and holes are formed. The passage of water through large objects, (usually boulders) causes a strainer. Holes are formed when water pours on top of submerged objects that cause the water to flow backwards which rushes over the object. Waves are fronts formed on water surface flowing down. Eddies are swirls or rotating water flow. When large volume of water suddenly comes against an obstruction, the water flows to a certain limit over the obstruction causing a pillow.

The popular destinations are South Fork American river, Colorado river, Arkansas river, Salmon river, Merced, Kaweah in US. Rivers in Quebec and British Columbia in Canada. Ganga Yamuna and Teesta rivers in India.

There has been concern by environmentalists due to activities of White water rafters like dredging the river bed. However white water rafting also contributes to the local economy.

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